The present study investigates and compares the effectiveness of online and traditional ESL teaching with the perspective of teachers and the challenges they face in both scenarios. The population of the study is Pakistani ESL teachers, whereas the sample of the study was comprised of twenty ESL teachers teaching at the undergraduate level. Questionnaires and interviews were used as the research tools of the study. Questionnaires were analyzed descriptively, and interviews were analyzed thematically. The findings indicate that teachers were not contented with online teaching and were more satisfied with the traditional ways of face-to-face teaching.
Online Teaching, Traditional Teaching, English as a Second Language (ESL)
The use of the internet has been overwhelmed the present times and has provided educational occasions throughout the world “(Allen & Seaman, 2013). The rate of online courses is mostly introduced at the graduate and undergraduate level, and the reason behind the enhancement of web-based learning at the graduate level includes economic and domestic responsibilities one has. And flexible nature of distance learning enables one to fulfil both duties at any time from their place. So, it is expedient for them (Kuong, 2011). By looking at this situation, university teachers were requested to switch their mode of teaching from face-to-face to distance teaching (Levin& Sun, 2002).
Online learning is not mere delivery of information; it requires creating an organized and meaningful interaction, and the very first thing in this regard is the need analysis of the learners (Dick & Carey, 2005). Technology has encompassed all types of learning, and media has played a really strong role in the development of critical and theoretical understanding among teachers and learners so, the use of ICT with the command for both teachers and learners exclude commendable results. And proper use of its application can contribute to delivering quality information by teachers to their learners for it enhances mutual learning, capable one to resolve the issues, and remove distance that may be a problem for one (Yasmeen et al., 2015).
Although the trend of online learning has increased, the situation is not the same in every part of the world (Murray, 2014). Pakistan is left behind in this regard for, here teacher training program means one day workshop given by an instructor (Chaudary, 2011). In Pakistan, this is yet not discovered that how information technology can help a teacher to deliver a concept in a striking manner (Qureshi, Ilyas, Yasmeen & Whitty, 2012).
Professional development programs for teachers in Pakistan are not up to the mark and don’t provide enough occasions for their development as a teacher (Memon, 2007). The same is the case with traditional professional learning programs’ in Pakistan as; these are “limited, fragmented, one-shot or short term, pre-packaged” and are out of the context of day-to-day experience (Hussain, 2009, p. 109). So, it becomes compulsory for the teachers to engage in such professional programs that are related to their context (Murray, 2014). And cyber technology has overcome this problem and provides one with a chance to indulge in an online contextual program that may guide them according to their classroom experiences (Kerry & Iskason, 2000). Online professional programs are effective for the teachers to share their concerns with colleagues and experts (Hur & Hara, 2007).
Many states like Australia, the USA, and Indonesia are getting benefits from this, but Pakistan is not because it is still dominated by traditional professional development programs (Ali, 2011). According to Ahsan 2007, online learning is the basic requirement of society because, in this way, women having distance problems in continuing their learning may join educational programs. Survey 2007 done by the government indicated that in Pakistan literacy rate is 61% and that of the female is 32% and only 29% of rural women get higher education. According to UNESCO 2007, in Pakistan, gender differences in the matter of education are really dangerous as 65% of males are educated while females’ educational rate is under 40%. And this is because of social restrictions or boundaries set for women in Pakistan. Parents are mostly responsible for this because they like to spend money on the education of their sons rather than daughters (PHHS, 2005). Another cause of this is the lack of schools and colleges in underdeveloped areas. Long-distance from institutions is another big reason in this regard (Munawar& Akhter, 2017). To overcome these issues, distance education has expanded the opportunities for women to join higher education in Pakistan (Khatoon, 2010).
Distance learning or online learning is a kind of tackling problems and needs of learners by creating new means of technology use in an attractive and more convenient way. This kind of learning is more independent. Students are the core of online learning as they are not dependent on instructors’ instructions. It can break the norms and can bring a revolution in teaching methodology. Due to its association with technology, it can better cope-up with learners’ needs, the use of technology may solve many issues. And that’s why it has created a universal platform for the purpose of education (Moore & Tant, 2002).
This is the reason that with the passage of time, the use of technology has increased in the field of education as well as compared to the past when only 3% of computers were used in the profession of education (National centre of Education, 2002, 2005). Nowadays, this amount has been credibly enhanced. An unbelievable amount of money is used to purchase the tools in order to use in classes (Halverson &Smith, 2009). So, it would not be wrong to say that situation is changed in recent times because; ICT is common these days for the majority of the teachers. They have easy access to video projectors and other modern tools to use in their lessons (De Groat, 2002).
Only the availability of technology in the class is not enough but to use it in the lesson in a productive way holds importance too, and for this reason, training to utilize computers in a beneficent way is really significant. To attain the purpose, workshops are arranged to train the teachers. The use of ICT has really proved to be a great help for the teachers to accomplish their tasks in less time. But it is still not working as progressive as in the case of other fields of life (Yatsko, Gross & Ghristensesen, 2009). Apart from command in the use of technology, another thing that is of worth in the success of online classes is the formation of the syllabus (Maninger, 2006).
E-learning has increased for it is convenient for many learners (Allen&Seaman, 2013). The rate of adopting online learning has increased mostly at higher educational courses (Kuong, 2011). The learners who have to do jobs to support their homes can easily get benefits from such courses because it enables them to get knowledge from their place if the technology is accessible to that person (Kuong, 2011). Online teaching is not only the delivery of the content as traditional one; it requires a different curriculum, methodology, material, and instructors (Willis, 1992). And to attain the purpose most important step is to do need analysis of the pupils (Kuong, 2011). Information communication technology (ICT) is used a great deal by many teachers and learners to attain their personal as well as professional goals (Leu&Forzani, 2012; Beauchamp, Burden& Abbinett, 2015). Mentors are also getting benefits from this to enhance their skills to enhance their professional skills by group activities and self-reflection (Sari, 2012) because online learners are “self-directed, self-motivated, goal-and relevancy-oriented and less dependent on instructors” (Kuong, 2011, p.20). According to Murray, 2014 teachers’ rate for online training has increased considerably but, this is not the case in Pakistan. Training in this country means a one-day traditional training session held by an expert (Chaudary, 2011). Technology is mostly used here for social purposes and rather than learning (Batool & Mahmood, 2010).
Self-motivated learners get benefits from distance learning (You&Kang, 2014). And self-motivated learners better know how to manage their time and distribute their tasks and finish them on assigned dates with the collaboration of their mentors (You&Kang, 2014). Online is flexible as students can work on their tasks at the time and place they like. And learners proclaimed that they felt it more peaceful and facilitating as it saves them from distractions that occur during traditional learning (Thomson, 2010). Dana and Thomson, 2009 threw light on the supple and facilitating nature of distance learning. Thomson (2010) was of the view that his e-learning is quite easy as compared to traditional one for it allows him to accomplish the assigned task on time suitable to him. It is facilitating to those who belong to small regions and may continue their study from their place (Chaney, 2001). Kirtman, 2010 highlighted that it is important to know the perception of students. Apart from this, both the external and internal environment of the learner is mandatory to explore in this respect (Matuga, 2009).
E-learning can overcome the hurdles one may face otherwise. And learning atmosphere should be comfortable for each kind of student, and for that need, analysis of the learner is necessary (Oswald & Meloncon, 2014). An approximation indicated that in the field of education, one out of ten students is weak. And online learning is a better opportunity for such learners to fulfil their dreams. According to Thompson (2010) distance, learning can fulfil the individual needs of a student in an organized way.
One of the charges that come against online
learning is that it is less interactive as compared to face-to-face learning that provides more learning satisfaction because it provides a scholastic environment and a great interaction with colleagues (Rovai, et al., 2005). Experts further elaborated that “online students feel a weaker sense of connectedness and belonging to than on-campus students who attend the face-to-face classes” (Rovai et al., 2005, p.4).
Online courses are mostly designed according to dominated culture, thus ignore the minorities and restrict them (Oswal & Meloncon, 2014).
According to Savenye (2005), inducing motivation in online learning is difficult. The students who are not self-responsible don’t finish their work on assigned time (You&Kang, 2014).
Intensive Reading and Writing
Rich text reading and writing are required in online learning and the learners not liking extensive reading couldn’t properly cope up with this mode of learning (Donlevy, 2003).
· What is the stance of ESL teachers on distance/online and traditional/face-to-face teaching?
· What challenges do ESL teachers face in online/distance and traditional/face-to-face teaching?
Population and Sample of the Study
The population of the study is Pakistani English as a second language teachers, teaching at the undergraduate level. The sample of the study was consisted of twenty ESL teachers from two universities of Lahore who were teaching English at the undergraduate level.
Research Methodology and Research Tools
Mix method research design was used for the present study, and the data was collected through questionnaires and interviews.
Quantitative data was taken from questionnaires and was analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was gathered through interviews. Open-ended questions were asked from the participants so that a deeper understanding of their attitudes may be known. This data was analyzed thematically.
Findings and Interpretations
What do you think about ESL online teaching?
The views of participants about online teaching were multiple. Some found it convenient, while others found it time-saving. Some considered it tiring and some took it as attractive. It mostly depends on one’s command of IT. Some of the views of participants are as follows,
It is flexible as it removes distances and is convenient for the workers. (A)
It is modern hence, attracts the students. Grasp their attention, and they find it interesting. (D)
It is tiring, boring, and time-consuming. (F)
It is convenient and saves time. (G)
It is new, interactive, innovative, and interesting to say the least. Worth time saves. Many concepts can be taught through visuals. (I)
The above responses indicated that ESL online teaching was considered modern and attractive. Some thought that it was flexible and helpful for those who needed to work for economic reasons. So, such workers could get benefit from online classes as they could join the courses from their places and at the time suitable to them. It was considered interesting too by the participants. One of them called it tiring and boring too. The figure below indicates themes excluding the responses. Apart from this, negative comments were also found because the participants considered it time-taking as well that became the reason for their boredom. And most of the time rationale behind their monotony was either the lack of capability in the use of technology or the connection failure.
Figure 1: Online Teaching
What Challenges do you Face during Distance ESL Teaching?
Different teachers indicated distinct problems they face during online teaching; Such as less interactive, less participatory, difficult to assess, difficult to give and take feedback etc. some of the majority spoken problems are given below,
It is difficult to ensure students’ participation.
Attendance is another issue, can’t be sure who is there at the other end. (A)
It is difficult to give and take feedback on tasks and activities (G)
It is heavily based on technology. Power failure can lead to lesson disruption. (D)
Instructional methods become restricted and group work can’t be managed properly. (E)
Peer work suffers immensely as students can’t work together. (I)
Online exams are not a reliable assessment of learning as students can cheat. (F)
The responses above showed that different participants had distinct concerns related to online teaching. They had several problems and most told problems were technology dependence and power failure. And when the interviewees were explaining the problems, they mentioned that they don’t consider online exams credible because the person giving exams could not be seen by the examiner. It cannot be sure who is giving exams. They also said that online exams should not be traditional instead their procedure and syllabus should be different. In this way, these could be made credible.
The figure below indicates the emerging themes of the responses.
Figure 2: Online Teaching Challenges
What do you Think about Traditional Teaching?
The responses about traditional teaching were positive. Teachers found it more convenient, easy, reliable, and less risky. Some of the responses are as follow,
On-campus, ESL teaching is tried and tested form of teaching English. (F)
It is more focused and provides an avenue to try different methodologies and also get face-to-face responses from the students. (A)
There is ample opportunity to give direct feedback etc. on tasks and activities. (D)
It is more participatory and is good for collaborative work. (G)
Traditional assessment is reliable. (I)
Delivery of concept is easy in face-to-face teaching. (C)
The above responses mostly indicated positive reactions. Participants’ responses were mostly in the favor of traditional teaching. They thought it’s easy to deliver concepts in traditional teaching. Besides this, they also considered that live classrooms are good because they are more interactive as compared to distance learning. Participants stated that for them traditional exams are reliable and valid for, the person giving the exam is in front of the examiner hence, his identity cannot be doubted. Apart from this, chances of cheating are less in face-to-face exams in contrast to distance one.
Responses of the participants are given in the form of themes that are presented through the figure underneath.
Figure 3: Traditional Teaching
What Challenges do you Face during Traditional Teaching?
Although most teachers were satisfied with on-campus teaching and life is a mixture of right and wrong. Nothing is perfect in this world. The same is the case with traditional teaching. It also has some loopholes that are mentioned below.
Availability of no or little audiovisual aids is a big problem. In this situation, it is difficult to deliver some important concepts. (E)
Students’ late arrival disturbs the lecture. (A)
Face-to-face teaching mostly depends on teachers. Students expect everything from me. And don’t want to indulge in self-research. (F)
Discipline management is a huge problem in the case of large classes. (D)
It is difficult to finish the syllabus in a limited time. (C)
In the above discussion, it can be seen that different teachers have diverse problems concerning face-to-face teachings such as time management, discipline, or others. According to them in on-campus classes, students expect everything from the instructor. They don’t want to tackle problems themselves instead want to learn every word from the teacher. It would not be wrong to say that online learners are more autonomous as compared to traditional learners.
Figure 4: Traditional Teaching Challenges
What Possible Solutions would you Like to Share?
Participants gave divergent solutions for both
online and traditional teaching according to their
experience and problems. A summary of the most spoken solutions is given below.
Teacher training sessions for both online and traditional teaching should arrange. (D)
Efficient LMS (Language Management System) should be arranged by the institution itself. (F)
An efficient assessment system should be introduced to curb cheating and plagiarism. (A)
A variety of tests can help to gauge the actual understanding of the students. (E)
Both traditional and online teaching and learning can work better if they go hand in hand. Only one either is not good enough. (I)
Audio-video aids should be provided by the institutions. (H)
The discussion above indicates different solutions given by the teachers about online and traditional teaching. Most of the teachers were of the view that professional teacher training programs should be arranged to train them so that they may cope-up with both modes of teaching. Different techniques like lesson planning, use of AV-aids indulging the pupils in collaborative learning should be taught to the mentors to hold successful classes. And these solutions are presented thematically in the figure below.
Objectives are well Achieved in Distance Teaching
The first statement was about the aims and
objectives and asked the teachers that either they think that with e-learning one can achieve the goals of the course. It is represented in percentages in the figure below.
Graph 1: Online Teaching Objectives
The above figure indicated that most teachers were not satisfied with this as they didn’t think they can attain the required goals in online teaching. The above chart showed that 55% of teachers disagree with the statement that they can achieve the goals of the course. And only 45% think that they can reach the desired goals of the course. The reason behind this was mentioned in interviews, that computer friendly teachers were more comfortable in distance teaching.
Objectives are well Achieved in the Face-to-Face Teaching
Statement 2 is the same as 1 and it only differs in the mode of teaching. In this question teachers were asked about traditional teaching that do they consider traditional teaching as attaining the purpose of the course? The results are given below
Graph 2: Face to Face Objectives
The above figure highlighted that most teachers agreed that they can better attain their goals in a face-to-face setting. By combining the ratio of agreeing and strongly agree 95% of teachers were in the favor of traditional teaching for the attainment of goals and only 5% were against it. The rationale behind this was that they considered this mode of learning more interactive and involving. Apart from this teacher found it more comfortable for they can take feedback from the learners and can understand their comprehension
level as indicated in interviews. If we compare statements one and two then it is clear that teachers find on-campus settings suitable to achieve the aims of the course.
Distance Teaching is more Interactive
The third statement belongs to interaction that is the core of any successful lesson. Teachers are asked either they have interaction with their learners in online teaching or not. The results are given below
Graph 3: Distance Teaching Interaction
The above results showed that most of the teachers don’t find online teaching interactive. A combination of disagreeing and strongly disagree shows that 70% of teachers found e-learning less interactive. From the interviews this thing became crystal clear that the identity of the learner is suspicious and one cannot determine who is at the other end. As well as students who are not self-motivated don’t co-operate with the class. Such students remain silent and their presence is difficult to determine. So, it’s really hard to interact with such pupils in online learning as compared to physically present classes.
Traditional Setting is more Interactive
This statement is a comparison from the above
statement and asks about teacher-student interaction in an on-campus setting. Results are
presented below in the form of an image
Graph 4: Traditional Teaching Interaction
The figure above threw light on the fact that teachers found traditional settings more interactive. Together with the ratio of agreeing and strongly agree indicated that 85% of teachers thought that in face-to-face teaching better interaction between teachers and students take place. Interviewees also mentioned that they found live classroom more suitable because in a way they can keep an eye on their learners. They can also take feedback from those who don’t want to indulge in the class. Troubling students are easy to handle in live interaction. The comparison of statements 3 and 4 showed that ESL teachers found traditional settings more interactive as compared to the online setting.
Maintenance of Discipline is Easy in the Traditional Setting
This asks teachers about discipline maintenance in a traditional setting. The results are presented in the form of the figure below
Graph 5: Traditional Discipline Maintenance
The results described that it was easy for the teachers to maintain discipline at face-to-face teaching. As indicated in statement 4 on-campus teaching is more participatory and interactive so it’s easy to involve the students into different tasks that lead towards a smooth session. So, most of the teachers indicated that they can better control the class in this style of teaching. The addition of agreeing and strongly agree showed that 85% of teachers found it easy to maintain discipline during on-campus teaching.
Maintenance of Discipline is Easy in the Online Setting
This is a comparison of previous statements and results show that teachers found it difficult to handle students in an online setting. E-learning is what most of the times occur from the distance so it is considered less interactive by the teachers as described in statements 3 and 4. Because of this, they thought that managing the class from distance is really challenging. The graphical representation of the results is given below
Graph 6: Online Discipline Maintenance
The majority of teachers found it difficult to maintain discipline in web-based learning. And 65% of teachers did not find it easy to maintain discipline in online teaching. The comparison of statements 5 and 6 showed the difference of thought and indicated that the majority of teachers were in the favor of traditional teaching.
Students are more Participatory in Distance Teaching
This statement calls for students’ participation that either they participate or not during an online class. Teachers were not satisfied with students’ involvement in e-learning. They thought that they cannot observe their students in web-based learning. The involvement of students in this kind of learning requires special activities. And self-motivated learners were found more participatory in these classes. The results are presented below
Graph 7: Online Students' Participation
Findings showed that teachers did not find learners participatory in distance teaching as 80% of teachers (by combining agree and disagree) did not find their learners taking participation during class.
Students are more Participatory in the Traditional Classroom
A comparison of the above statement is described
in this statement that students participate in the traditional classroom or not. The pictorial representation of the results is given below
Graph 8: Learners Participation in Traditional Class
Teachers were of the view that in physical presence of the learners it is quite easy to involve them into several activities because, they can keep an eye on them. Apart from this they can take time to time feedback from the students. A combination of agreeing and strongly agree shows that 85% of teachers found their learners taking part in class during face-to-face class. Comparison of statements 7 and 8 deduce the results that the majority of teachers found their learners more participatory in the face-to-face teaching as compared to online teaching.
Collaborative Tasks are well Accomplished in Online Classes
Group work and pair work is a significant part of ESL learning. And teachers were asked about the accomplishment of such tasks in distance teaching. To indulge the learners in group work, formation of activities is required. Professionally skilled teachers are also needed to design context-based activities. The teachers showed divergent views about it as shown below
Graph 9: Online Collaborative Tasks
Teachers had distinct views about online collaborative tasks as, if we combine agree and strongly agree on ratio as well as disagree and strongly disagree ratio then 45% teachers found online teaching good for collaborative tasks while 55% did not. So, there was a slight difference between them.
Collaborative Tasks are well Accomplished in the Face-to-Face Classes
Comparison of the above mention statement highlights teachers’ views about the accomplishment of collaborative tasks during traditional classes. This time results were strongly in the favor of on-campus classes. The figure below indicates the percentages of the responses.
The results indicate that 80% of the teacher (by combining agree and strongly agree) found face-to-face teaching suitable for the accomplishment of collaborative work. A comparison of statements 9 and 10 throws light on fact that teachers found traditional settings more suitable for the execution of collaborative tasks.
Level of Learners’ Comprehension is better Understood in the Traditional Setting
To grasp learners’ understanding of the delivered
concept is crucial for a teacher so that one may assess himself and his learner. Feedback is a technique to get the idea about learners’ level of understanding. And teachers found it quite easy during face-to-face classes because they have an eye contact with their learners. Teachers can also tackle students’ comprehension through their gestures or facial expressions that is only possible in traditional setting. The responses of participants are given below in the form of the figure.
Graph 11: Learners' Comprehension in Traditional Environment
Findings were clearly in the favor of this statement as 95%teachers (combining agree and strongly agree) thought that they can properly understand their learners’ level of comprehension.
Level of Learners’ Comprehension is Better Understood in an Online Setting
This statement is same as mentioned above it only
differs in the mode of teaching. Taking feedback from distance is really challenging because one cannot observe the student. Without feedback grasping students’ comprehension is really difficult. And it is quite evident from the results represented below
Graph 12: Online Level of Comprehension
Results described that 60% of the teacher (by combining disagree and strongly disagree) considered that they did not understand their learners well in distance teaching. A comparison of both statements indicates that teachers better understand their learners’ understanding of the concept in a traditional setting.
Individual needs are well Determined in online Teaching
A teacher is the one who can understand what his
learner requires. A teacher can better know the positive and negative points of his learners. Can he do this during online class? This is the question. The answer is clear from interview questions that distance learning is neither interactive not participatory (as told by the interviewees) and without that needs of a learner cannot be determined. The percentage of participants’ responses are given underneath
Graph 13: Online Individual Needs
The above results indicate that 70% of participants (combining disagree and strongly disagree) did not consider online teaching as a platform that can determine the individual needs of their learners.
Individual needs are well determined in Traditional Teaching
This statement aims to know from teachers that can they get information about their learners in a face-to-face session or not? In other words, it is a comparison of statement 13 but this time discovery is required about traditional classes. The results are shown below
The above graph manifests that the teachers were thoroughly in the favor of traditional settings to determine the individual needs of their students. Because in face-to-face studies teachers can properly monitor their pupils and try to deal with his weak spot. As well as also provides with practical solutions of the problems. 85% of teachers (combining agree and strongly agree) agreed with this view. A comparison of statements 13 and 14 elaborated the results as crystal clear in the favor of traditional setting. So, it can be said that face-to-face class is what teachers preferred for the determination of their learners’ needs.
Delivery of Concept is easy in Online Teaching
A classroom is a place where one delivers and the other receives the information. And this information is crucial to both teacher and student. Teachers should deliver it properly and students should receive it accurately. And this is when learning takes place. During distance, teaching is it possible to deliver the information properly. The answers of the teachers are given in the form of the figure.
Graph 15: Online Delivery of Concept
The results indicated that 60% of participants thought that they can deliver their concepts properly in distance teaching.
Delivery of Concept is easy in the Traditional Classroom
This is a comparison of the above-mentioned statement and the aim is to know teachers like to share information traditionally or want to change it. The results are given below,
Graph 16: Traditional Delivery of Concept
The above graph indicates that 75% of teachers (by combining agree and strongly agree) liked to deliver concepts traditionally. A comparison of statements 15 and 16 resulted in the favor of the traditional way of teaching.
Resources can be well used in Online Classes
Manipulation of resources is the heart of any class. Online class, that is different from traditional class, can this type of lecture use resources appropriately for teaching purpose? What are the teachers’ attitudes on this is mentioned below
Graph 17: Online Use of Resources
The results indicated that 55% of teachers could use the resources properly in online teaching. There was a slight difference between participants’ views of agree and disagree on the above statement.
Resources can be well used in Traditional Classes
In face-to-face teaching use of the aid is cooperative in the delivery of the main concept. Especially in ESL classes”’ proper use of resources related to content play a vital role. And what do Pakistani ESL teachers thought about it is presented below
Graph 18: Traditional Use of Resources
Results indicated that the majority were of the view that they can better use AV-aids in a traditional setting. The above graph threw light on the fact that 95% of teachers (combining agree and strongly agree were comfortable using resources during the face-to-face session. A comparison of statements 18 and 19 indicated that traditional teaching was favorable for the teachers to use resources.
Online Classes are Preferable for ESL Teaching
This called for teachers that which mode of teaching they like the best for English as a second language class. Teachers need to indulge their students into different activities to train them with all four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing). How do instructors think about distance teaching for the practice? The results are shown below in the form of a figure
Graph 19: Online ESL Teaching
The above results indicated that only 45% of teachers liked to teach through online mode.
Traditional Classes are Preferable for ESL Teaching
This is a comparison from the above ratio and
aimed to know which mode of teaching teachers prefer in ESL classes. In what way they can better practice skills to their learners online or traditional? The findings are described underneath
Graph 20: Traditional ESL Classes
Results showed that 95% of teachers (by combining agree and strongly agree) preferred traditional teaching for English classes. A comparison of both statements 19 and 20 deduced the result that teachers were in the favor of traditional settings for ESL classes.
Online Teaching is Frustrating
This statement also describes teachers’ attitudes about distance teaching because its results indicated how they perceive it as tiring or entertaining? And the results are presented below
Graph 21: Frustration in Online Teaching
The results by combining agree and strongly agree showed that 55% of teachers considered online teaching frustrating. From the interview of participants this is evident that they found distance teaching tiring because it is thoroughly dependent on technology. And power failure really disturbs the lesson and creates boredom. Apart from this, one who is unfamiliar with the use of technical tools feels boredom in E-learning.
By comparing above statement this indicated how teachers found face to face setting exasperating or gratifying and the findings are mentioned below by bar graph
Graph 22: Frustration in Traditional Classes
The results threw light on the fact that traditional teaching was not found frustrating by the majority of teachers as, the combination ratio of disagreeing and strongly disagree showed that 90% of teachers did not agree with the given statement. Comparison of statements 21 and 22 described those teachers found online classes frustrating.
Online Assessments are Reliable
Exams are the part of learning and teaching to get the feedback and to promote at the next level so, it should be valid and reliable otherwise proper judgments may not be done. And this statement asked the teachers that either they found online assessments up to the mark or not? And the results are given below
Graph 23: Online Assessments
The above graph indicated that 95% of teachers (combining agree and strongly agree) did not consider online assessment reliable and valid. The rational that the teachers described are that according to them cheating cannot be detected is such exams. Due to physical un-presence of the learners, his identity is also suspected.
Traditional Assessments are Reliable
By comparing above mentioned statement this indicated teachers’ views on traditional assessments and results are presented below
Graph 24: Traditional Assessments
The results were evident as crystal clear. 100% of teachers (combining agree and strongly agree) found traditional exams reliable because in such exam’s learners are observable to the examiner and their identity is also not doubted. As compared to online assessments teachers were strongly in the favor of traditional exams and considered them valid.
Modern Technologies make Distance Teaching Attractive
Online learning means learning with the use of modern ICT tools. And they made this mode of teaching attractive or not this is the question. And what teachers thought of it is given below
Graph 25: Technology Attraction
The results indicated that 95% of teachers (combining agree and strongly agree) found modern tools attractive.
Lack of Competency in using Technology makes Distance Teaching Tiring and Problematic
Although teachers found modern technology attractive but they were equally disappointed with it because it was difficult for them to use it. Incompetency in handling up-to-date technology tools made it tiring for them as well. And results are given below
Graph 26: Incompetency in the use of Technology
The results indicated that no training in the use of technology made teaching boring and difficult.
Distance Teaching Requires more Time and Effort
This explores how teachers think of distance teaching time consuming or easy. Although machines enable one to accomplish the tasks quickly, unfamiliarity to use the gadgets makes it more time taking. And hinders like electricity problem or poor internet connection slow down the process as well. With all these issues what do teachers think about it? The results are given below
The results indicated that 80% of teachers (the combination of agreeing and strongly agree) found distance teaching time-consuming.
Traditional Teaching Requires more Time and Effort
This statement is the comparison of the above-mentioned statement and elaborates that traditional teaching is time-consuming or not? The results are given below
Graph 28: Traditional Teaching Time Consuming
A combination of disagreeing and strongly disagree indicated that 60% of teachers did not find traditional teaching time-consuming and tiring. A comparison of traditional and online teaching showed that the majority of the teachers found traditional teaching suitable for ESL teaching.
Stance of ESL Teachers
· The teachers could not deliver their lessons properly through distance teaching.
· Online teaching was considered technology- dependent so it was thought risky.
· Online exams were not considered reliable and valid by the teachers.
· Traditional teaching was considered satisfying by the teachers for ESL classes.
· It was thought a convenient and reliable way of giving and receiving information.
· Traditional classes were not considered risky by the educators.
· Traditional exams were reliable and valid as considered by the teachers.
· ESL teachers were against the online environment and were in the favor of face-to-face classes.
Challenges Faced by ESL Teachers
· Online teaching was thought of technology-dependent that might get failure at any time.
· Insufficient training in the use of technology made online classes tiring.
· Online exams could not be reliable as students can cheat.
· Students’ participation could not be ensured.
· Online teaching made instructional methods limited distance teaching was viewed less interactive by both learners and teachers.
· Traditional teaching was considered more teacher-centered and dependent.
· Having no or poor audio-video aids was another issue mentioned by the respondents.
· It was heavily dependent on time as the target to finish the syllabus on given time snatched the freedom for the performance of activities necessary for the practice
· Training sessions should be arranged for both online and traditional teaching.
· Especial workshops should be designed to make technology friendly to the teachers.
· Institutions should develop efficient LMS systems.
· In the case of distance and online teaching, and efficient assessment system should be introduced to curb cheating and plagiarism.
· Both online and on-campus systems should be combined to form a hybrid environment so that better results may be evolved.